Yıl: 2017  Cilt: 52  Sayı: ÖZEL SAYI  Sayfa: 358-385

doi: 10.15659/3.sektor-sosyal-ekonomi.17.12.821


TÜRKİYE’DE KONUT POLİTİKALARININ KONUT KOOPERATİFÇİLİĞİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ VE KONUT KOOPERATİFLERİNİN KONUT ÜRETİMİNDEKİ ROLÜ ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME

HASAN YAYLI, SİNAN AVAN

Konut Politikası, genel olarak devletin konut gereksinmesini gidermek için almış olduğu gerek anayasal gerekse yasal önlemlerin tamamı olarak ifade edilebilir. Türkiye’de de Cumhuriyetin ilanıyla birlikte nüfus artışı, göçler ve hızlı kentleşmeye bağlı olarak gelişen konut sorununun çözümünde devlet bir takım konut politikaları izlemek durumunda kalmıştır. Öte yandan konut kooperatiflerini, gönüllülük esasına dayalı, karşılıklı yardım ve dayanışma ilkeleri çerçevesinde, daha çok toplumun dar gelirli kesimlerine hitap eden ekonomik ve sosyal kuruluşlar olarak ifade etmek mümkündür. Devletin konut politikalarının etkisiyle konut kooperatiflerinin gerek sayısının gerekse konut üretimindeki payının 1970’li yıllardan itibaren giderek arttığı görülmektedir. 1984 yılında yürürlüğe giren 2985 sayılı Toplu Konut Yasasının (TOKİ) olumlu etkisiyle birlikte bu artışın 1986 yılında yüzde 36,3 payla zirveye çıktığı görülmektedir. Ancak mevzuatta yapılan değişiklikler ile yetki alanı gittikçe genişleyen TOKİ’nin 2000’li yıllardan itibaren kooperatiflere kredi desteğini neredeyse kestiği görülmektedir. Bu ise özellikle 2000’li yıllardan günümüze konut kooperatiflerinin konut üretimindeki payının gittikçe azalmasına sebebiyet veren önemli etkenlerden birisidir. Nitekim 2016 yılı itibariyle konut kooperatiflerinin yapı kullanma izinlerine göre konut üretiminde sektör içerisindeki payının yüzde 2,5 olduğu saptanmaktadır. Bu azalmada ise yine konut politikalarında aksi yönde meydana gelen değişikliklerin etkili olduğu söylenebilir.  

Anahtar Kelimeler (Keywords): Konut, Konut Politikası, Konut Kooperatifi, Konut Üretimi, Konut Sorunu

A STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF HOUSING POLICIES ON HOUSING COOPERATION IN TURKEY AND THE ROLE OF HOUSING COOPERATION ON HOUSING PRODUCTION

Humankind has been in tendency of finding secure shelters to preserve himself from external factors in addition to the basic biological needs like eating, drinking and reproduction for centuries. These shelters have changed and developed according to the production form and needs based on the nature. So, housing in terms of modernism can be identified as a physical place for individual’s sheltering and the places which help for socialization and have the sense of belonging. Thanks to the industrial revolution in Europe, the migration from country to the cities caused the increase of and the problem of housing population in the cities. This event made the problem of housing as a universal problem in 19th century, and became a triggering role for the states’ housing policies.

Housing policy can be defined as the whole constitutional, legal and organisational measurements for eliminating the housing needs of the state.  With the proclamation of Republic in Turkey, the housing problem arose depending on population growth, migration and rapid urbanisation, and the state had to follow some housing policies for solution. Several public organisations were authorised for determining these policies and implementations. The other organization for taking an important role for housing production was housing cooperation besides public organisations and private sector. Housing cooperation can be defined as economic and social institutions that appeal to poor people as part of help and solidarity and based on volunteering. Housing cooperation had adhered to Turkish Trade Act until Cooperation Law numbered 1163 in 1969. With the help of this law, the foundation of upper organisations, the attendance of local managements and social security institutions to cooperation became available. Also, it was observed that housing cooperation was supported and promoted by the state on the subjects like obtaining credit, tax reduction and immunity. These practices that can be seen as a reflection of housing policies in terms of the state caused the housing cooperation to increase in number in 1970s and grew to its highest range of 36.3% in 1986. On the other hand, from 2000 to today it is observed that the share of housing cooperation on the housing production has been decreased. The share of housing cooperation in the sector is about 2.5% in 2016. It is thought that this decrease is originated from the changes happened against the housing policies.

This study aims to analyse the positive and negative effects of housing policies on housing cooperation which isn’t independent from the housing policies and which is associated to the non-governmental organisations.

Anahtar Kelimeler (Keywords): Housing, Housing policies, Housing Cooperation, Housing Production, Housing problem.

Tam Metin 857

TÜRKÇE    ENGLISH

MAKALE ARAMA
Arama Alanı:
Arama Terimi:

Copyright © MakaleSistemi.Com altyapısı kullanılmaktadır.